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- Episiotomy for vaginal birth.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007; : CD000081
- Is routine use of episiotomy justified?.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996; 174: 1399-1402
- Episiotomy for vaginal birth.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009; 1
- Episiotomy rates around the world: an update.Birth. 2005; 32: 219-223
- Variations in rates of severe perineal tears and episiotomies in 20 European countries: a study based on routine national data in Euro-Peristat Project.Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2016; 95: 746-754
- Episiotomy in the United States: has anything changed?.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009; 200 (e1–e7): 573
- Australia’s mothers and babies.Aust Health Rev. 2012; (Perinatal Statistics Series no. 30 Cat. no PER 69 Canberra: AIHW)
- The role of episiotomy in current obstetric practice.Semin Perinatol. 2003; 27: 3-12
- Perineal Trauma and postpartum perineal morbidity in Asian and Non-Asian primiparous women giving birth in Australia.J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2008; 37: 455-463
- An Australian prospective cohort study of risk factors for severe perineal trauma during childbirth.Midwifery. 2007; 23: 196-203
- Racial differences in severe perineal lacerations after vaginal delivery.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003; 188: 1063-1067
- Is Asian ethnicity an independent risk factor for severe perineal trauma in childbirth? A systematic review of the literature.Women Birth. 2012; 25: 107-113
- Reasons for routine episiotomy: A mixed-methods study in a large maternity hospital in Phnom Penh.Cambodia Reprod Health Matters. 2015; 23: 68-77
- Is the policy of restrictive episiotomy generalisable? A prospective observational study.J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009; 22: 1116-1121
- Perineal length: norms in gravid women in the first stage of labour.Int Urogynecol J. 2009; 20: 1361-1364
- Demographic variations and clinical associations of episiotomy and severe perineal lacerations in vaginal delivery.J Natl Med Assoc. 2006; 98: 1874
- Women's choice? The impact of private health insurance on episiotomy rates in Australian hospitals.Midwifery. 2000; 16: 204-212
CCOPMM. Victoria’s mothers babies and children 2012 and 2013 [Accessed 15 July 2016 and cited on 15/7/2016].
- Obstetrical factors associated with levator ani muscle injury after vaginal birth.Obstet Gynecol. 2006; 107: 144
- Severe perineal lacerations during vaginal delivery: the University of Miami experience.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000; 182: 1083-1085
- Risk factors for third-degree perineal tears in vaginal delivery, with an analysis of episiotomy types.J Reprod Med. 2001; 46: 752-756
- Prevalence and risk factors for third-and fourth-degree perineal lacerations during vaginal delivery: a multi-country study.BJOG. 2012; 119: 340-347
- The case for retaining severe perineal tears as an indicator of the quality of obstetric care.Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2013; 53: 3-8
- Obstetric trauma.Health at a glance. OECD indicators OECD Pulblishing, 2015 ([cited 2016 June, 16])
- The rate of obstetric anal sphincter injuries in Finnish obstetric units as a patient safety indicator.Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2013; 169: 33-38
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gyaenacologists. Maternity dashboard clinical performance and governance score card 2008 available at https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/goodpractice7maternitydashboard2008.pdf. [Accessed 14 July 2016 and cited on 14 July 2016].
US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2010. Quality indicators. 2010 Available from: 9 http://www.qualityindicators.ahrq.gov [Accessed 15 July 2016].
Ministry of Health. 2016. New Zealand Maternity Clinical Indicators 2014 [cited July 14, 2016. Available from: http://www.health.govt.nz/publication/new-zealand-maternity-clinical-indicators-2014.
Victorian Government, Department of Health and Human Services 2016. Victorian perinatal services performance indicators 2013–14 Melbourne 2016 [cited August 19, 2016].
- Obstetric sequelae of female circumcision.Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1989; 32: 233-240
- Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome: WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries.Lancet. 2006; 367: 1835-1841
- Perinatal health outcomes of East African immigrant populations in Victoria, Australia: a population based study.BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016; 16: 1
- Somali women and their pregnancy outcomes postmigration: data from six receiving countries.BJOG. 2008; 115: 1630-1640
- Variations in first‐time caesarean birth between Eastern African immigrants and Australian‐born women in public care: a population‐based investigation in Victoria.Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2016; (in press)https://doi.org/10.1111/ajo.124491
Australian Government Department of Immigration and Citizenship: Australia’s Humanitarian Program – Information Paper available at http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/pdf/hp19.client-info-paper.pdf retrieved on April, 20/2015.
- Infibulated women have an increased risk of anal sphincter tears at delivery: a population‐based Swedish register study of 250 000 births.Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2013; 92: 101-108
- Methodological processes in validating and analysing the quality of population-based data: a case study using the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection.HIM J. 2013; 42: 12-19
United Nations Children Fund. Female genital mutilation/cutting: a statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change 2013 available at http://www.unicef.org/media/files/UNICEF_FGM_report_July_2013_Hi_res.pdf [Accessed and cited on July 30, 2016].
- Increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome among Somali immigrants in Washington state.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Aug; 193: 475-482
- Trends in major modifiable risk factors for severe perineal trauma, 1996–2006.Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2008; 102: 165-170
- Incidence and risk factors for severe perineal laceration after vaginal delivery in Japanese patients.Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2006; 274: 222-226
- Is severe perineal damage increased in women with prior anal sphincter injury?.J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2006; 19: 723-727
- Advanced age is a risk factor for higher grade perineal lacerations during delivery in nulliparous women.Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2010; 281: 59-64
- They get a C-section: they gonna die: Somali Women’s fears of obstetrical interventions in the United States.J Transcult Nurs. 2010; 21: 220-227
- The use of intrapartum defibulation in women with female genital mutilation.BJOG. 2001; 108: 949-951
- Maternal health and pregnancy outcomes among women of refugee background from African countries: a retrospective, observational study in Australia.BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014; 14: 392
- Preventing perineal trauma during childbirth: a systematic review.Obstet Gynecol. 2000; 95: 464-471
- Practices that minimize trauma to the genital tract in childbirth: a systematic review of the literature.Birth. 1998; 25: 143-160