Advertisement

Midwives’ knowledge of pre-eclampsia management: A scoping review

Published:September 11, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2020.08.010

      Abstract

      Background

      Pre-eclampsia is a multi-organ disease affecting pregnant women from the second trimester onwards resulting in multiple adverse outcomes. Sub-optimal treatment of pre-eclampsia is linked with unfavorable outcomes. It is critical for midwives as primary providers to be competent in the diagnosis and management of pre-eclampsia especially in low-and middle-income countries.

      Aim

      To identify what midwives’ around the world know about pre-eclampsia management.

      Methods

      A scoping review using the JBI three-step search strategy was used to identify relevant research articles and grey literature on the subject. Database searches in PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Databases, Web of Science, and Scopus yielded twenty papers in addition to nine guidelines from Google Scholar. The findings were synthesised using a metasynthesis approach and presented as themes.

      Findings

      Four themes were identified from the extracted data: Foundational knowledge of pre-eclampsia; Knowledge and management of a woman with pre-eclampsia according to guidelines; Knowledge of being prepared for emergency procedures and management of emergencies; Factors influencing knowledge. The first three themes addressed diagnosis and management whilst the last theme described how contextual factors led to either increased or decreased knowledge of pre-eclampsia.

      Conclusion

      Worldwide, practicing midwives lack knowledge on several aspects of pre-eclampsia diagnosis and care. Policies on in-service training should be oriented to include innovative non-traditional methods that have the potential to increase midwives’ knowledge.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Women and Birth
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Bomela N.J.
        Maternal mortality by socio-demographic characteristics and cause of death in South Africa: 2007–2015.
        BMC Public Health. 2020; 20: 157
        • World Health Organization
        Trends in Maternal Mortality: 2000 to 2017: Estimates by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank Group and the United Nations Population Division.
        2019 (Accessed 12 May 2020)
        www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/maternal-mortality-2017/en/
        • Alkema L.
        • Chou D.
        • Hogan D.
        • et al.
        Global, regional, and national levels and trends in maternal mortality between 1990 and 2015, with scenario-based projections to 2030: a systematic analysis by the UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-Agency Group.
        Lancet (London, Engl). 2016; 387: 462-474
        • Girum T.
        • Wasie A.
        Correlates of maternal mortality in developing countries: an ecological study in 82 countries.
        Matern. Health Neonatol. Perinatol. 2017; 3: 19
        • Molla M.
        • Mitiku I.
        • Worku A.
        • Yamin A.E.
        Impacts of maternal mortality on living children and families: a qualitative study from Butajira, Ethiopia.
        Reprod. Health. 2015; 12: S6
        • Scott S.
        • Kendall L.
        • Gomez P.
        • et al.
        Effect of maternal death on child survival in rural West Africa: 25 years of prospective surveillance data in the Gambia.
        PLoS One. 2017; 12e0172286
        • Say L.
        • Chou D.
        • Gemmill A.
        • et al.
        Global causes of maternal death: a WHO systematic analysis.
        Lancet Glob. Health. 2014; 2: e323-e333
        • Belay A.S.
        • Wudad T.
        Prevalence and associated factors of pre-eclampsia among pregnant women attending anti-natal care at Mettu Karl referal hospital, Ethiopia: cross-sectional study.
        Clin. Hypertens. 2019; 25: 14
        • Brown M.A.
        • Magee L.A.
        • Kenny L.C.
        • et al.
        Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: ISSHP classification, diagnosis, and management recommendations for international practice.
        Hypertension. 2018; 72: 24-43
        • Sun B.Z.
        • Moster D.
        • Harmon Q.E.
        • Wilcox A.J.
        Association of preeclampsia in term births with neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring.
        JAMA Psychiatry. 2020; 77: 823-829
        • Weitzner O.
        • Yagur Y.
        • Weissbach T.
        • Man El G.
        • Biron-Shental T.
        Preeclampsia: risk factors and neonatal outcomes associated with early- versus late-onset diseases.
        J. Matern. Neonatal Med. 2020; 33: 780-784
        • Bayoumi M.A.A.
        • Ali A.A.H.
        • Hamad S.G.
        • et al.
        Effect of maternal preeclampsia on hematological profile of newborns in Qatar.
        Biomed Res. Int. 2020; 20207953289
        • English F.A.
        • Kenny L.C.
        • McCarthy F.P.
        Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia.
        Integr. Blood Press. Control. 2015; 8: 7-12
        • Ehret G.
        Genes for preeclampsia.
        Hypertension. 2018; 72: 285-286
        • Townsend R.
        • O’Brien P.
        • Khalil A.
        Current best practice in the management of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.
        Integr. Blood Press. Control. 2016; 9: 79-94
        • Lowe S.A.
        • Bowyer L.
        • Lust K.
        • et al.
        SOMANZ guidelines for the management of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy 2014.
        Aust. N. Z. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 2015; 55: e1-e29
        • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist
        Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. ACOG Practice bulletin no. 202.
        Obstet. Gynecol. 2019; 133: 211-218
        • World Health Organization
        WHO Recommendations for Prevention and Treatment of Pre-eclampsia and Eclampsia.
        2011
        • ] National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (UK)
        • NICE
        Hypertension in Pregnancy: Diagnosis and Management.
        2019 (Accessed 4 May 2020)
        • World Health Oragnization
        WHO Recommendations: Optimizing Health Worker Roles to Improve Access to Key Maternal and Newborn Health Interventions Through Task Shifting.
        World Health Organization, 2012
        • Raney J.H.
        • Morgan M.C.
        • Christmas A.
        • et al.
        Simulation-enhanced nurse mentoring to improve preeclampsia and eclampsia care: an education intervention study in Bihar, India.
        BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019; 19: 41
        • Ansari N.
        • Manalai P.
        • Maruf F.
        • et al.
        Quality of care in early detection and management of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in health facilities in Afghanistan.
        BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019; 19: 36
        • Warren C.E.
        • Hossain S.M.I.
        • Ishaku S.
        • Armbruster D.
        • Hillman E.
        A primary health care model for managing pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in low- and middle- income countries.
        Reprod. Health. 2020; 17: 46
        • Moodley J.
        • Soma-Pillay P.
        • Buchmann E.
        • Pattinson R.C.
        Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: 2019 National guideline.
        S. Afr. Med. J. 2019; 109: 12723
        • UNFPA
        • ICM
        • WHO
        The State of the World’s Midwifery. A Universal Pathway. A Woman’s Right to Health.
        2014: 228
        • ten Hoope-Bender P.
        • de Bernis L.
        • Campbell J.
        • et al.
        Improvement of maternal and newborn health through midwifery.
        Lancet. 2014; 384: 1226-1235
        • International Confederation of Midwives, ICM
        Essential Competencies for Midwifery Practice.
        2019 (Accessed 17 August 2020)
        • Peters M.D.J.
        • Godfrey C.M.
        • Khalil H.
        • McInerney P.
        • Parker D.
        • Soares C.B.
        Chapter 11: Scoping reviews.
        in: Aromataris E. Munn Z. Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewer's Manual. JBI, 2017
        • Munn Z.
        • Peters M.D.
        • Stern C.
        • Tufanaru C.
        • McArthur A.
        • Aromataris E.
        Systematic review or scoping review? Guidance for authors when choosing between a systematic or scoping review approach.
        BMC Med. Res. Methodol. 2018; 18: 143
        • Hawker S.
        • Payne S.
        • Kerr C.
        • Hardey M.
        • Powell J.
        Appraising the evidence: reviewing disparate data systematically.
        Qual. Health Res. 2002; 12: 1284-1299
        • Adekanle D.A.
        • Adeyemi A.S.
        • Olowookere S.A.
        • Akinleye C.A.
        Health workers’ knowledge on future vascular disease risk in women with pre-eclampsia in south western Nigeria.
        BMC Res. Notes. 2015; 8: 576
        • Stellenberg E.L.
        • Ngwekazi N.L.
        Knowledge of midwives about hypertensive disorders during pregnancy in primary healthcare.
        Afr. J. Prim. Health Care Fam. Med. 2016; 8: e1-6
        • Sotunsa J.O.
        • Vidler M.
        • Akeju D.O.
        • et al.
        Community health workers’ knowledge and practice in relation to pre-eclampsia in Ogun State, Nigeria: an essential bridge to maternal survival.
        Reprod. Health. 2016; 13: 108
        • Siansende B.
        • Muleya M.C.
        • Siame M.
        • Mbewe L.
        • Bwalya D.
        Worldwide maternity services. Knowledge levels and practices of midwives in the management of severe pre-eclampsia at health centre level.
        MIDIRS Midwifery Digest. 2015; 25: 511-516
        • Olaoye T.
        • Oyerinde O.O.
        • Elebuji O.J.
        • Ologun O.
        Knowledge, perception and management of pre-eclampsia among health care providers in a maternity hospital.
        Int. J. MCH AIDS. 2019; 8: 80-88
        • Ngwekazi N.L.
        An Evaluation of the Knowledge of the Registered Midwives Managing Hypertensive Disorders at Primary Health Care Level in the Eastern Cape [dissertation].
        Stellenbosch University, 2010
        • Masemola S.R.
        Implementation of Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Pre-eclampsia by Midwives in uMgungundlovu District of KwaZulu Natal [dissertation].
        University of South Africa, 2017
        • Lohre E.B.
        • Liljevik S.
        Practices of Hyperetension in Pregnancy Among Health Care Workers in Moshi Urban, Tanzania [dissertation].
        University of Oslo, Norway2012
        • Ramavhoya I.T.
        • Maputle M.S.
        • Lebese R.T.
        • Ramathuba D.U.
        • Netshikweta L.M.
        Managing hypertensive disorders during pregnancy in low resource settings.
        Hypertens. Pregnancy. 2019; 38: 230-236
        • Jaffar R.J.
        Knowledge and Skills on Managing Eclampsia Among Nurse-midwives Working at Mnazi Mmoja Hospital, Unguja Zanzibar [dissertation].
        Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, 2013
        • Fadlala A.A.
        • Babikir R.K.M.
        • Ali Z.T.
        • Gassmalla N.A.
        Awareness of nurses/nurse midwives regarding magnesium sulfate administration to pre-eclamptic/eclamptic mothers.
        Int. J. Nurs. 2019; 6: 91-98
        • Maembe L.E.
        Managing Pre-eclampsia and Eclampsia in Dar Es Salaam Public Health Facilities: a Focus on Equipment, Supplies, Drugs and Knowledge of Healthcare Workers [dissertation].
        Muhimbili University of Health and Allied sciences, 2012
        • Soggiu-Duta C.L.
        • Crauciuc D.V.
        • Crauciuc E.
        • et al.
        The impact of an intensive educational program regarding preeclampsia on health professional knowledge.
        Revista. Chimie. 2019; 70: 2245-2251
        • Soggiu-Duta C.L.
        • Suciu N.
        Resident physicians’ and midwives’ knowledge of preeclampsia and eclampsia reflected in their practice at a clinical hospital in southern Romania.
        J. Med. Life. 2019; 12: 435-441
        • Wang V.
        • Mueller A.
        • Minhas R.
        • Yan J.
        • Guo J.
        • Rana S.
        Understanding and comparing practices of managing patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in urban China and the United States.
        Pregnancy Hypertens. 2019; 17: 253-260
        • Indarti J.
        • Prasetyo S.
        Knowledge of midwives as a healthcare provider about hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.
        Indones. J. Obstetrcis Gynecol. 2019; 7
        • Rahimi M.S.
        • Fahami F.
        • Najimi A.
        The effectiveness of training through mobile on the practice of midwives in the management of pre-eclampsia.
        Biomed. Pharmacol. J. 2017; 10: 781-786
        • Rahmati R.
        • Dehnavi Z.M.
        • Kamali Z.
        • Dehnavi A.M.
        The effect of mobile-based and lecture-based training methods on midwives’ knowledge regarding management of preeclampsia/eclampsia.
        J. Midwifery Reprod. Health. 2018; 6: 1430-1436
        • Kim Y.M.
        • Ansari N.
        • Kols A.
        • et al.
        Prevention and management of severe pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in Afghanistan.
        BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013; 13: 186
        • Rodriguez-De Vera M.C.
        • Uyheng J.I.B.
        A study on the knowledge and management practices of hypertension in pregnancy among midwives in the different public health centres of Cebu City.
        PJOG. 2017; 44
        • Poon L.C.
        • Shennan A.
        • Hyett J.A.
        • et al.
        The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Initiative on Preeclampsia (PE): a pragmatic guide for first trimester screening and prevention.
        Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstetrics. 2019; 145: 1
        • Ghana Health Service, GHS
        National Safe Motherhood Service Protocol.
        Yamens Press, Accra2016
        • Ministry of Health Zambia
        Zambia National Maternal and Neonatal Services Refferal Guidelines.
        (Lusaka: Zambia)2018
        • National Institute for Clinical Excellence, NICE
        Public Health Guidance 18: Weight Management Before, During and After Pregnancy: Public Health Guidance Scope.
        2010 (Accessed 30 August 2020)
        • Scott C.
        • Andersen C.T.
        • Valdez N.
        • et al.
        No global consensus: a cross-sectional survey of maternal weight policies.
        BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014; 14: 146-167
        • Vidaeff A.
        • Pettker C.
        • Simhan H.
        Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia ACOG PRACTICE BULLETIN.
        Clin. Manage. Guidel. Obstetrician-Gynecologists. 2019; 133 (The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist): 1-25
        • Cummins A.M.
        • Catling C.
        • Homer C.S.E.
        Enabling new graduate midwives to work in midwifery continuity of care models: a conceptual model for implementation.
        Women Birth. 2018; 31: 343-349
        • Rouleau D.
        • Fournier P.
        • Philibert A.
        • Mbengue B.
        • Dumont A.
        The effects of midwives’ job satisfaction on burnout, intention to quit and turnover: a longitudinal study in Senegal.
        Hum. Resour. Health. 2012; 10: 9