- Allcott Hunt
- Boxell Levi
- Conway Jacob C.
- Gentzkow Matthew
- Thaler Michael
- Yang David Y.
- World Health Organization
- World Health Organization
- Aquino E.M.L.
- Silveira I.H.
- Pescarini J.M.
- Aquino R.
- de Souza-Filho J.A.
- Lebel C.
- MacKinnon A.
- Bagshawe M.
- Tomfohr-Madsen L.
- Giesbrecht G.
- Karavadra B.
- Stockl A.
- Prosser-Snelling E.
- Simpson P.
- Morris E.
- Reinders S.
- Alva A.
- Huicho L.
- Blas M.M.
- Chatwin J.
- Butler D.
- Jones J.
- James L.
- Choucri L.
- McCarthy R.
2.4 Recruitment and data collection procedures
2.5 Data analysis and trustworthiness
|Participant number||Age||Scholarship||Paid work||Number of pregnancies||GA (w)|
|1||28||Elementary||No||2||23||Ageusia, anosmia, dyspnea, fever, myalgia, odynophagia||Yes||1st trimester bleeding|
|2||31||High school||No||2||13||Ageusia, anosmia, cutaneous rash, odynophagia||No||Syphilis||1st trimester bleeding|
|3||30||Elementary||No||5||26||Ageusia, anosmia, dyspnea, myalgia, odynophagia, tiredness||Yes|
|4||35||Higher education||Yes||2||6||Anosmia, ageusia||No||IUD pregnancy|
|5||25||High school||No||5||32||Ageusia, anosmia, dyspnea, odynophagia||Yes||HIV+||Preterm birth|
|6||28||High school||Yes||3||34||Ageusia, anosmia, chest pain, conjunctivitis, dyspnea, fever, headache, myalgia, odynophagia, tiredness||Yes|
|7||27||High school||Yes||4||19||Dyspnea, headache, myalgia, odynophagia, tiredness||No|
|8||31||Elementary||No||3||23||Ageusia, anosmia, headache, fever||No||Arrhythmia|
|9||36||Higher education||Yes||1||9||Ageusia, anosmia, dyspnea, headache, odynophagia||No||Depression|
|10||19||High school||No||1||33||Ageusia, anosmia, dyspnea, fever, odynophagia||Yes||Preterm birth|
|11||38||High school||Yes||3||12||Ageusia, anosmia, dyspnea, headache, myalgia, odynophagia, tiredness||Yes||Gestational diabetes|
|12||27||High school||Yes||3||39||Ageusia, anosmia, dyspnea, myalgia, odynophagia||No||Gestational diabetes|
|13||39||High school||Yes||2||30||Dyspnea, fever, myalgia, odynophagia, tiredness||Yes||Purpura|
|14||20||High school||No||1||32||Dyspnea, fever, headache, myalgia, odynophagia||Yes||Gestational diabetes, anemia||Birth defect|
|15||26||Elementary||No||2||16||Ageusia, anosmia, diarrhea, headache, myalgia, nausea||No|
|16||34||High school||No||3||36||Dyspnea, fever||No||Diabetes, hypertension|
|17||28||Elementary||No||5||16||Diarrhea, headache, fever, myalgia, odynophagia||No|
|18||33||Elementary||No||3||Missing||Dyspnea, fever, myalgia, nausea, odynophagia||No|
|19||28||Higher education||No||1||32||Dyspnea, headache, fever, odynophagia, tachycardia||Yes||Preterm birth|
|21||30||High school||Yes||2||14||Ageusia, anosmia, dyspnea, fever, headache, myalgia odynophagia||No|
|22||25||Higher education||No||4||14||Ageusia, anosmia, diarrhea, dyspnea, fever, headache, myalgia odynophagia||No|
3.1 Category 1
3.1.1 The pandemic before infection: the virus existing only on the other side of the world
“I thought this virus was not coming to Brazil…it might happen there, but not with me” (Interviewee 18)
“Now I say ‘Man, this is no joke’, [but] before I wouldn’t say anything, I couldn’t care less, you know what I mean… I had a mask on, but you know… the mask was only to cover my mouth, I wasn’t being really careful… you know, I used to think that I would not get it, I don’t know… that it was only a little flu11The expression “little flu” was declared by president Bolsonaro in March, 2020 to lessen the severity of the COVID-19 and it reached national prominence.” (Interviewee 6)
“I thought it was a pregnancy thing, I felt a lot of pain in my body, shortness of breath. There were nights when I woke up crying because I had a lot of pain in my body, but we don’t even think [it is COVID], you know? Because my routine was from hospital to home, from home to hospital, I just don’t go out, right. So I’ve always taken care of myself, I used masks, as they recommended, right?” (Interviewee 5)
“And then you get sick, not with COVID, but in your head. And that’s what was happening with me. I was getting sick for real […] So, you know, this is something that shook me a lot, this COVID thing.” (Interviewee 13).
“Two days before [my diagnosis], I think, a Christian singer that I really liked died with this disease. So, I was thinking, ‘I’m going to die.’” (Interviewee 1).
3.2 Category 2
3.2.1 Experiences from diagnosis to sickness: worrying about the possibilities
“For me, it was a normal flu that would cure, right. And then, when I found out [the diagnosis], I got scared because we don’t know how it affects the pregnancy” (Interviewee 2)
“You know, I was feeling undisposed, and then I think ‘Maybe I caught a flu, right.’ Even though I took the [flu] shot, I still think it was a flu. I worked that week….” (Interviewee 11)
“Oh, because I didn’t feel symptoms or anything, I still disbelieve that I had COVID, I think this exam went wrong” (Interviewee 14).
“Look, it’s… it was Friday and the doctor already put me in isolation, and told me to stay isolated, and on Sunday my mom made some lunch, and we ate together … because up until then the isolation we were keeping was really because the doctors said, but in my head I did not have it.” (Interviewee 11).
“I lost the sense of smell, I had difficulty breathing, but I thought that my difficulty breathing was because I was pregnant. […] I still ask myself ‘My God, where did I get it, I wasn’t seeing anyone” (Interviewee 18)
“And I had researched everything, looked on the internet to see what the symptom was, but it was only, like, I only had a cough and trouble breathing, I didn’t have everything that was on the internet. So I said to myself ‘Ah, I don’t have it. It is just a minor cold.’ […] I got really scared when I got the news…” (Interviewee 1)
“About the feelings, sometimes you cry, sometimes you’re happy, sometimes you’re sad, sometimes you’re worried. It’s very unstable” (Interviewee 4)
“Of course, I’m super apprehensive, because of the baby, God forbid and save! There’s not much research yet, right.” (Interviewee 9)
“I think that we put it all together, because, like, when you only have a fever, a headache, it’s all right, but when you feel difficulty breathing, then you think ‘I will die, for sure!’. Then you hear that I don’t know how many thousand, millions of deaths […]then you say ‘I am dying for sure, I won’t even make it to the hospital’ […] It’s because the other symptoms you can manage with medicine, but not the difficulty breathing, you know?” (Interviewee 22)
“We begin to… we are looking for it, right, looking for a mistake. ‘Oh, but where did I go? Where did I get it, right?’ […] It’s like, maybe I shouldn’t have been there, or I should have been more careful, right?… like blaming yourself a little bit.” (Interviewee 20)
“On the day I found out about it, that’s all I had in my mind, I feel guilty. I would rather be admitted to the hospital, isolated from everyone, because what I’ve done, like… I harmed everyone.” (Interviewee 1)
3.3 Category 3
3.3.1 “The Thing”: facing the unnamable virus among close relationships
“Oh, I was very worried about passing something to the baby, or about my situation getting worse, you know? Because I already have some health issues, I would cry a lot because I was scared, really scared, I was really scared that I would pass away, or, I don’t know, maybe passing it to someone like my mother, who is 68, and I was very scared of passing it to her.” (Interviewee 11)
“When we don’t have the virus, we feel sorry, we feel the pain, we have empathy but, … you can’t… compare it with when you really tested positive. It is… REALLY nerve-racking, really! Even more when you’re pregnant. Oh, my… I cried… for real! Non-stop […] I thought I was going to die. That maybe the baby would not have a mom… I was always thinking about me, but he would be fine. [Silence] … too much apprehension. Anguish! Affliction… oh, I had every bad feeling.” (Interviewee 19)
“Well, most news we hear, unfortunately, is about when they [the medical team] had to anticipate the delivery, right? […] Then they anticipated… they took the baby out, did a c-section, and all. And then the mom is admitted in, right, because unfortunately the mom doesn’t come back a lot of times, she can’t survive.” (Interviewee 20)
“I thought I was going to die and also lose the baby […] I only calmed down when I did the ultrasound.” (Interviewee 15)
“I’m looking forward to taking exams to see if my baby is ok, my anxiety now to see if he’s ok” (Interviewee 7)
“To me, the nights were the worse, because when the night fell, I cried a lot […] my nose would get very runny, the difficult breathing would be very bad, and so I would turn to one side and I could breathe, turn to the other and couldn’t breathe. I wouldn’t call my husband to help, thinking: ‘I can’t call him, or else I will infect him’. So, I tried for myself, living only inside the room, thinking ‘Man, I will die!’. Difficulty breathing, right? … the worse thing is to want to breathe but not be able to.” (Interviewee 18)
“What motivated me was… was D. [the baby], really, through each kick, each new sensation brought by the pregnancy, that’s what uplifted me.” (Interviewee 19)
“My husband’s reaction was of shock, fear, he also cried. There was a time, like, he was on the outside and I was inside the bedroom crying at the door, and he was saying ‘You are my life, the mother of my children, … now our dream is coming [referring to the baby], now it’s a girl.’ And how was I? On the other side, you feel your heart even tighter, right?”. (Interviewee 18)
“Look, my brother, my dad, they were ok, calling, asking. Now, my mother… it was as if I would die, and that was making me nervous, because my mother would treat me as if I was really dying.” (Interviewee 13)
“So, like, it’s that feeling that you are an infected stranger, that everyone has to keep their distance because you will transmit it, you know?” (Interviewee 13)
3.4 Category 4
3.4.1 The hospitalization and attachment to the health team
“They [the doctors] would call me every day, to ask how I was, if I was any better. […] Because we know nothing [about COVID], it’s a concern, to know if you are good, if you are not feeling worse, right? So I felt good knowing that the doctors were concerned about how I was.” (Interviewee 17)
“[The medical team] were excellent, everyone, no exception. I had a lot of love, a lot of affection, and a lot of care.” (Interviewee 19).
“My experience was that they explained me exactly what I had to do. They were simply being attentive, right? Even more in my case, as a pregnant woman, so, like… any questions I may have someday, I know that if I ask them, they will try to answer me.” (Interviewee 16)
“And then if I get it and become really sick, in the hospital, then I said ‘Oh my God! Will I die? What about my daughter?’ [voice breaks] And it was really difficult.” (Interviewee 13)
“Then I would cry a lot because I didn’t want it, like, we don’t get to choose having these things, right? My mom would calm me down because I was afraid I wouldn’t come out of the ICU.” (Interviewee 10)
“In the hospital, I was resting for real. During the 48 hours I stayed there, I lay down, just doing this, just recovering [from the disease]” (Interviewee 13)
“In the hospital too, the nurses were very loving, going there all the time, at the room door, they wouldn’t come in the room all the time to avoid having to get all dressed every time, right? They would only come in when it was time for the meds, when it was time to bring in the food, then they would go in the room, but during the day they would tap the glass door, asking if I needed anything.” (Interviewee 11)
“You are not allowed to do anything, unfortunately that’s the feeling, it seems like you are from outerspace, right? (laughter), you can’t come close, you can’t touch anything, you can’t chat, talk as little as you can, those things.” (Interviewee 20)
“Then the doctor showed up again and said straight away ‘Look, we will do your delivery at 4pm’, it was noon then, ‘because your baby’s amniotic fluid is getting low, he will start to suffer, and you’re also at risk.’ That’s what he said! And my heart almost… stopped. And I was desperate, you know?… anyways… […] I was sure I was going to die, but I knew the baby would be ok, I had that certainty, you know?” (Interviewee 19)
“I said ‘Oh, God, it’s on you, do whatever you want, just look after my baby, you don’t have to worry about me.’ I was sure I was going to die, I really felt it, I was feeling so sick [Pause]. Oh my… It was terrible, like, the feeling, and when he was born, I… I saw him really fast, like seconds, and they already took him… to NICU. And… and then I was better from EVERY symptom.” (Interviewee 19)
3.5 Category 5
3.5.1 The emotional experience after recovering from COVID-19
“It was a roller-coaster, it’s really like that. […] I don’t know how to define the feeling precisely. I … I try to resignify every part of suffering into something good … so we suffer less […] I don’t know yet.” (Interviewee 19)
“Well, it’s complicated […] in truth we don’t even know if after the 14 days you are not an infection risk still, right? To infect someone else, or even if you yourself are not at risk of getting it again, so we don’t know, it’s a bit complicated, we are a bit nervous” (Interviewee 17)
“When you go outside, it’s like you are doing something wrong, you know? Everyone looks at you, in a way like ‘Why are you here? That’s wrong, go back home and stay inside’”. (Interviewee 13)
- World Health Organization
Conflict of interest
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